The Regius Poem — Appendices

Table of Contents

  1. Appendix I: King Athelstan
  2. Appendix II: Notes On Regius Paleography
  3. Appendix III: The Lorion Transcription
  4. Appendix IV: Internet Errors

Appendix I

King Athelstan: Who he was is not in doubt. Son of Alfred the Great, first King of all Britain, reigned from 924-939 AD. What is in doubt is how his name is spelt. He's mentioned 3 times during the course of the Regius Poem. You can see how the various transcribers and translators handled it in this chart:
LineLorionHalliwellBaxterChurch
62ağelƒton9Adelstonus 46
(possesive case)
Athelstane's 2070
(possesive case)
Aethelstane 42
(objective case)
486AlğelƒtonAldelston 26Althelston 17Aethelstane 42
495AğelƒtonAdelston 6Athelstane 2070Aethelstane 42
Six different variations between the three modern-alphabet versions. The numbers after each name are the number of Google hits each one generated. (A couple had to be searched for as "King A—" because they matched an unrelated entity.) Against this, we have the spelling used by some modern historians, Aethelstan or Æthelstan (Google treats these two interchangably), with 23,100 hits. But even that's tiny compared to King Athelstan, with an overwhelming 98,500 hits!

Appendix II

Some Notes On Regius Paleography

Before the printing press finally led to standardized fonts, writing was understandably a very individual art. There were no dictionaries, punctuation was inconsistant, and even letter shapes were in flux. The writer of this poem had his own style, and at times in interpreting it, it helped to take that style into consideration.

As you can see, Medieval writing had letters and abbreviation symbols[*] we no longer use. Regius was written late enough in the period that only a handful were still in use, and those more predictably than they had been in earlier periods. Halliwell and Speth translated all but one of these into their modern equivalents, rather than transcribing them accurately. The letter thorn Þ / þ always became th. The long s ƒ became s. The tittle ~ became er, or re if it was reversed ¬. And there were symbols, not all with individual names (represented in the Lorion transcription by 9 and ^ and ¿) for us and ra and ry and the Latin suffix um. The exception to Halliwell's transformations was yogh (sounded as y, j, z, g, or gh). In Halliwell and Speth inkprint versions this letter appeared, looking like a cursive z; but it doesn't have any equivalent in ASCII, and few fonts have in Unicode. On the Internet, some websites used [G]/[g] as a substitute for yogh, others used Z / z (a letter which doesn't appear in Middle English, and eventually supplanted yogh in many words). This site follows the latter convention.

Appendix III: The Lorion Transcription

First, a bunch of technical details. If I could have typed an 'i' without a dot, I would have put in 'ii' in place of probably 75% of the 'u's and 'n's, and 'iii' for most of the 'm's. (The 'i' with a dot I'd save for the few places that really did call for an 'i', although it didn't have a dot there, either.) If you try reading my transcript, consider the 'u's and 'n's largely interchangable. Many times, words that Halliwell transcribed as 'thou' looked more like 'thon', and I transcribed them that way, even if 'thou' fit the context, and 'then' or 'than' didn't. But if I absolutely couldn't tell when a letter was an 'n' or 'u' I gave in and followed Halliwell's choice. The first two shapes for 'r' mentioned above I made no distinction between, since which one was used was clearly dependent on the shape of the preceeding letter; but the third one [*] I indicated with a subscript 'r'. The letter eth Ð / ð, which translates as th, was indistinguishable from d, though it sometimes[*] was apparently meant. I used 'ğ' only a few times[*] when the modern cognate of a word used 'th' instead of 'd'. The 'w', being so large, I seriously considered using 'W' for it, just as I did use 'ı' for all instances of 'y'. Thorn looked more like 'y' than 'ş' in any font I have available, but I resisted the urge to make that substitution. 'ƒ' isn't really identical to the 'long s', but seemed a reasonable approximation; however in most fonts it's not kerned correctly, so it looks like it has a space after it, especially when used in a double 'ƒƒ'.

Halliwell capitalized words that would be capitalized in Modern English, I left them all as lower-case. For the capitals at the start of lines I found no reason to second-guess Halliwell in most cases. The red highlighting seemed more indicative of capitalization than the letters themselves. [H, K, M, V, W, X, İ, Z] were unchanged or only slightly larger when used as capitals, and may have had a slight tail added as a flourish, [A, Ş] were much larger but still nearly identical in appearance, and [B, C, D, E, F, G, I, J, L, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T] were significantly different in shape. The only disagreements I had with Halliwell and Speth on capital letters were over I versus J. "J" was only used a few times, and while "I" appeared often in Roman numerals and the Latin section headings, it also was infrequent in the English text. Halliwell used J for lines 531 and 605 and I for line 643, which fit the context better, while I used the opposite based on the appearance of the text.

Then there were the symbols above letters, and those without spaces after them when they ended a word. Since I couldn't indicate when an apostrophe or tittle '~' was above a letter, I always placed it after, and put a space following it if it was at the end of a word, whether there was a space in the manuscript or not. Also used only at the end of words, 's' and '9' didn't always have a space between them and the following words, but I always used one for them. Contractions with superscripts were also usually written in the manuscript without a space following them, but they were never part of larger words, not even 'without', so with them I tried to be more accurate on depicting spacing, though it was sometimes a close judgement call.

The only punctuation was a dot • which usually appeared both mid-line and at the end of a line, and guided the rhythm of the poem. Sometimes there was a space after it, sometimes the following word was tight against it. This may have sometimes been an indication if it was a comma or a period, but most of the time I think it had no significance. Nonetheless, I tried to keep spacing the same, just in case, but it was often a very subjective decision.

In making my transcription, I had both the photocopies from Hunter's book and the calligraphy from the Masonic Book Club book available, and I couldn't have done it without both of them together. The former was my primary source, since although the calligraphed version was clearer, that was itself a problem. The original had smudges, occasionally making letters difficult to read. When that happened, Price either extrapolated what the missing letters looked like, or left a blank spot with no indication that it wasn't blank on the original as well. Since he could examine the original better than I could with black & white photocopies, I had confidence that his extrapolations were probably accurate; but the blanks could be deceptive. Thanks to computer technology, it was a simple matter for me to put smudged areas into a lighter colored print to indicate areas of less certain transcriptions. In deciphering these areas, I consulted first the photocopies, then the calligraphy, then the Halliwell/Speth transcription, and finally my own conception of what word might best fit poetically.

Let us consider for a moment James Orchard Halliwell. He was a prodigy, and some articles he wrote on number theory gained him the distinction, at 18, of being the youngest member ever admitted to the Royal Society; that elite group of such men in previous generations as Christopher Wren, Isaac Newton, Robert Moray, Elias Ashmole, and John Theophilus Desaguliers; and whose origins are tangled with those of Speculative Freemasonry. But in 1838, when James discovered and translated the Regius Poem, he was still only 18, and trying to make a name for himself in the different field that would be his lifelong career. This was the why and how of his finding the manuscript. The lecture he gave on it was his entrance into the Antiquarian Society. But he wasn't a Mason. He was still too young to be one. Was it too much to expect this boy, with no initiatory experience or vested interest except his own self-promotion, to give the translation the same care as someone more experienced and concerned? Even when he published his book on it four years later, The Early History of Freemasonry in England, he was barely over the minimum age for admittance to the Craft. One would expect a social-climber so involved in Masonic research to have become a Mason. But Halliwell was apparently a caustic and headstrong person with a questionable grasp of ethics, embroiled in controversy and subject to accusations throughout his life. He was an aggressive self-aggrandizer, which led to further animosities. It's not known if he ever petitioned a Lodge for membership, but one can imagine him doing so in 1839, thinking he merited the same special treatment as he had received from the Royal Society, but being rejected for being under age, thus beginning to develop a grudge against the Craft. And trying again in 1842, but being rejected for the scandal caused when he eloped against his noble father-in-law's consent. Trying again in 1844 after the second edition of his book on Freemasonry was published, and rejected because of the cloud of suspicion around him for stealing rare books from Cambridge and trying to sell them to the British Museum. It was one of these controversies that forced him to change his name to Halliwell-Phillips, but that was in 1872, near to 30 years after he had done with the Regius Manuscript and Freemasonry.

I've been asked why I made a new transcript. Partly it was as a method of studying the poem in depth for myself. Partly it was a way to check the webpage for additional errors (I found several). But mainly it was the hubris to think that I could do a better job than those who had tried in the past. Halliwell didn't really transcribe the manuscript, but he didn't translate it, either. He left most words in the Middle English of the turn of the 15th century, but he changed it as he transposed it into our modern alphabet. He changed any thorn 'ş' into 'th', but not all 'th's had been 'ş's, so that one couldn't work backwards to find which form the original had used. Ditto tittles '~' and 'er'. He expanded contractions. He changed spellings to make them more consistant (though he didn't do it consistantly). He used accented 'é's 36 times through the poem — perhaps he had a better understanding of how the words were pronounced 400 years before his day than I do — but those accents weren't there in the manuscript. Perhaps worst of all, he ignored the punctuation in the poem which guided the rhythm of it, and imposed his own. And he made errors. Speth found and corrected a few, and I corrected many more in my transcription. But my version probably isn't perfect either, so I hope someone else will improve mine, just as I feel I improved on Halliwell.

Owen Lorion, February, 2008.

Appendix IV

The following charts are the result of surveying 23 websites which had the Baxter translation of the Regius Poem, and 9 websites which had the Halliwell/Speth transcription. They were compared based on content alone, so any formatting was ignored, and as much as possible was stripped off before comparing them.

Once stripped to the essential text, duplicates and derivations were identified, narrowing the field to 3 Halliwell/Speth and 5 Baxter groupings.

    Halliwell/Speth - Generation I
  • Grand Lodge of British Columbia & Yukon
  • Pemberville Lodge (OH) #516
  • Pietre Stones
  • Wasatch Lodge, Salt Lake City, UT
    Halliwell/Speth - Generation II
  • Grand Lodge of North Carolina;
    Ray Dotson, webmaster
  • Lodge Hope of Kurrachee, with
    Fife Masonic Research Lodge
  • Torrione Lodge of Research
  • Lodge Minchin, India UGLE
    Halliwell/Speth - Generation III
  • Hawthorne Fortitude Lodge
    Baxter - Group A
  • Anchor-Astoria Lodge, NY
  • Craftings (UGLE)
  • Trinity Valley Lodge, Dallas, TX
  • Grand Lodge of Minnesota
  • Grand Lodge of North Carolina,
    Ray Dotson, webmaster
  • Lodge Hope of Kurrachee, with
    Fife Masonic Research Lodge
  • Imzadi blog
  • Lodge Minchin, India UGLE
  • Phoenix Masonry
  • Pietre Stones
  • Regular Grand Lodge of England
  • Southern California Lodge No.529
  • Wasatch Lodge, Salt Lake City, UT
    Baxter - Group B
  • Masonic Dictionary
  • Graveworm Press
  • About: Alternate Religions
    Baxter - Group C
  • Hawthorne Fortitude Lodge
    Baxter - Group D
  • Grand Lodge of British Columbia & Yukon
  • Pemberville Lodge (OH) #516
    Baxter - Group E
  • Phoenix Masonry -
    Mackey's Encyclopedia article on 'Halliwell'
  • Grand Lodge Bet-El (French)
    Baxter - Group F
  • St.John's Lodge of Seattle, WA
  • MasonicPedia of Chennai, India

The history of the Halliwell/Speth version online is fairly clear. Someone from one of the generation I sites typed it in by hand (the errors are of a different sort than an optical character reader (OCR) would make). Whether this ur-copy included numbering which was stripped, or didn't and had it added, is unknown. If it was numbered first, it was probably GLBCY which entered it, and Pemberville copied that since the only difference between them was a typo in Pemberville at line 446 which didn't get carried on to any other site. Pietre or Wasatch copied from GLBCY, stripping the numbers, and the other of those two copied that. In the generation II group, Hope copied one of the unnumbered gen-I sites and tried to revise it, in process correcting some errors, adding others, and leaving many the same. They also elided some lines, leaving them out entirely. They also changed the yoghs from '[g]' to 'z' and the accented 'é's to 'e's. GLNC copied Hope, adding only a single comma on line 779, to mark the direction of copying. Then Torreone came along and copied GLNC, adding only one new typo at line 643, but changing rounded parenthesis to square brackets, stripping the periods off headings, and tried to add numbering. Unfortunantly, they also numbered the 5 half-lines that had wrapped[*]. These numbering errors were irregularly offset by the lines missing from the the gen-II copies, so the numbering was off by one or two throughout most of the poem. Next came Minchin, which copied Torrione, strightened out the wrapped lines, but now left out those 5 line numbers. Finally, the only gen-III website, Hawthorne, came along and copied Minchin. They stripped off the bogus numbering, found and corrected some of the errors, and filled in some of the missing lines with the corresponding passages from Baxter.

With more sites involved, the tracing the Baxter version involves a bit more guesswork. There seem to be at least 4 different web sources, from at least two different print sources, with errors already present in the print versions. The largest group of identical sets of errors is A, with 11 identical, 1 (SoCal) identical until it cuts off at line 511 in the middle of the Quatour Coronati story, and 1 (GLMN) that corrected a couple of erroneous words, but remains essentially the same. Groups B and C are those based on A, but significantly different from it. Possibly Masonic Dictionary copied first, then Graveworm from that, adding extra headings and footnotes, then About copied from Graveworm (these two are identical, I just think Graveworm was more likely to edit than About). The only one in Group C (just as it had been the only Gen-III site for Halliwell/Speth), Hawthorne also copied from an A-lister, and tried to patch up the errors, not always with total success. Groups A through C are the ones that used modern words throughout. The first one of them copied from the same source as the MSA booklet, which also used just the modern words, and has some of the same errors. The MBC book copied from the MSA booklet or its same source, since it has the same errors, plus a few that aren't on any websites. Groups D, E and F all followed Baxter's format of using the ancient words when needed to rhyme, and noting the modern equivalent in parenthesis following. Group D, someone in GLBCY used an OCR program to read in the text, a much more painless method than typing it in, but one which creates a distinctive set of typographical errors; and then Pemberville copied it from there, correcting a handful of the OCR errors, mostly involving the archaic words or their translations, while adding a couple new ones of their own. Group E, Phoenix Masonry used an OCR program to read in the text from Mackey's Encyclopedia; Bet-El copied Phoenix identically, errors and all. Group F, someone in Seattle probably typed it in from the same error-ridden print source as the A-list used, and MasonicPedia copied it from there, adding some strange typos by having the first letters of several lines cut off, or the last character of a line wrapping to the start of the next one.

The Halliwell table has 154 rows, the Baxter table has 212 rows. When compilation began with the Baxter, punctuation differences were also tabulated, and resulted in an additional 200 rows before it was decided to eliminate them as being not worth the clutter. The original Manuscript was written before modern punctuation had been standardized, so it has only one all-purpose mark • to serve as period, comma, colon, semicolon, bang, or dash. And sometimes just to mark metric feet. Modern punctuation was substituted by Halliwell, and adjusted by his successors at interpreting the MS.; Speth, Baxter, the editor of Mackey, and the many who first copied it onto the Internet, and then recopied it again from site to site, including even myself. An early edition copy of Baxter was not available to compare these to; the print copies that were at hand (the MSA booklet, the MBC book, and Hodapp's Freemasonry for Dummies) suffered from the same copied-from-a-copy syndrome as the Internet copies, and while not searched as assiduously as the Internet copies, errors were found in each. The latter of those three probably was itself taken from the Internet (it matches Group A). However, a copy of Hunter's 1952 book was available (thanks to Inter-Library Loan and the University of Utah), which included black and white photos of the original manuscript. And a copy of the facsimile from the MBC book, thanks to the library of Montezuma Lodge #1, Santa Fe, New Mexico. These were consulted often when in doubt about which choice of words was most correct, though as noted they were no help with punctuation.


Errors with Halliwell/Speth Transcription

Key:Probably correctAcceptable alternativeTypographical errorWord or line missingExtra word or line added
LineM.P.S.Gen. IGen. IIGen. IIIcomments
4 hade hade had had
10 gret gret fret fret
10 stryfe stryfe stryge stryge Ms. has stry(smudge)
17 lyvynge lyvynge lyvnge lyvnge
31 lernede lerned lerned lerned
35 grete grete frete frete
37 Zet Get Zet Zet
39 symplyst synplyst synplyst synplyst
49 servand servand servant servant
66 (elided) (replaced) (see below)
78 Knyzthys Kynzthys Kynzthys Kynzthys
86 ther
90 hym hum hum hum
94-6 (elided) (replaced) (see below)
96 thet that
104 schal shcal shcal shcal
109 y-tolde y-tolde z-tolde z-tolde
116 come com com com
119 ysse ysse uysse uysse
124 ben be be be
127 fowrthe fowrhe fowrhe fowrhe
133 Zef Gef Zef Zef
134 myzth mygth myzth myzth
135 myzth mygth myzth myzth
136 myzth mygth myzth myzth
137 that tht tht tht
139 Zef Gef Zef Zef
139 dwelle swelle swelle swelle
140 ze myzth ge mygth ze myzth ze myzth
141 zese gese zese zese
141 honesté honeste honeste honeste
142 degré degre degre degre
144 prentes prenes prenes prenes
145 sumtyme symtyme symtyme symtyme
161 syxte syxte syzte syzte
168 hys hure, hys, hure hys, hure hys, hure
175 zer ger zer zer
178 zow gow zow zow
183 Ny thylke Wy thylike Wy thylike Wy thylike
185 schewet schewt schewt schewt
201 thenthe then the then the then the
203 ther there there there
205 Yn Yn Yn Ny
205-6 (duplicated) (see below)
214 not no no no
216 nozth nogth nozth nozth
218 profyt profyt profzt profzt
221 begynnyth begynnyth begynnth begynnth
237 But Buy Buy Buy
245 good good food food
246 Scheweth Scheweth Schewete Schewete
248 But Byt Byt Byt
248 curys crys crys crys
251 artycul artycul artcul artcul
252 mayster he mayster he maysterhe maysterhe
268 thy they they they
282 Telle Telle Tells Tells
283 conwsel conwsel conwesel conwesel
283 halle halls halls halls
293 thazth thatzth thatzth thatzth
307 suche suche such such
308 Amonge Amonge Am nge Am nge
312 undur under under under
316 y-nowzgh y-nowzgth y-nowzgth y-nowzgth
319 ze
324 maystres maysters maysters maysters
325 thy the the the
327 thy the the the
330 be
338 poynt pynt pynt pynt
339 A trwe A trwe Atrwe Atrwe
345 Zef that ze Gef that ge Zef that ze Zef that ze
347 ze ge ze ze
358 hast hsat hsat hsat
366 And Any Any Any
366 presentyth presentyeth presentyeth presentyeth error in print source
377 throwz thorwz thorwz thorwz
385 zet get zet zet
388 lowde lowde, lowde, lowde,
392 craft crafte crafte crafte error in print source
399 (elided) (replaced) (see below)
400 hyt sone, zef hyt sone, zefhyt sone, zef it soon if
402 l(ordys) l(ordys) lordys lordys word obliterated in Ms. except for initial upright.
Halliwell guessed hole (whole) Speth guessed lordys (employer's),
407 ys
408 y-holde y-hole y-hole y-hole
413 sqwyers sqwyers
418 fre fre free free
421 threntethe threnteth threnteth threnteth Thirteenth
426+ Xiiijus punctus Xiiijus punctus Xiijus punctus Xiijus punctus
436 be by by by
438 ben be be be
446 semblé sembl&3233; semble semble the ASCII code for é is &0233; [error in Pemberville only]
447 fyftethe fiftethe fifethe fifethe
449 ordynance ordyance ordyance ordyance
451 thylke thelke thelke thelke
451 ben be be be
452 there ther ther ther
458-9 (elided) (elided) (see below)
458 craft crafy
465 bodyes bodyes dodyes dodyes
468 every everyt everyt everyt
469 there ther ther ther
469 ful full full full
471+ gemetriæ gematriae gematriae gematriae
479 ther tehr thr thr
489 worsché worsche worsche worsche
489 rygolté ryzolté rygolte rygolte
492 ze ge ze ze
494 stonde stonde stone stone
496 ordeynt ordeydnt ordeydnt ordeydnt Error in print source
498 swete Error in print source
509 Suche Suche Susch Susch
520 so, so so so
522 byleve beyleve beyleve beyleve
529 (elided) (elided) (see below)
530 hyt kyt kyt kyt
532 names name name name
532 quatuor quatour quatour quatour
543 Kyng King King King
553 dede ded ded ded
564 meke make make make
570 songe song song song
573 seventhe seventh seventh seventh
575 ben bene bene bene
578 leven leven, leven, leven,
583 muche much much much
586 sende send send send
594 harlotry harlotry harlotrey harlotrey
599 thou tou tou tou
600 thou thow thow thow Error in print source
639 zynge zynze zynge zynge young
643 "Jhesu "Jhesu "Jhesu Jhesu Quote mark also missing from Torreone and Minchin
649 very vey vey vey
650 That Tath Tath Tath
660 wroght wrought wrought wrought Ms. has wroght
699 withoute without without without
702 Thyn owne Thyn owne Thynowne Thynowne
702 thou tou tou tou
707 affter after after after
720 norter norther norther norther Error in print source
726 maneres maneres maners maners
730 knowe know know know
735 bred bred bed bed
753 drynkynge drynkynge drynkiynge drynkiynge
762 myzht myg[h]t myzht myzht
764 fro from from from
769 but buyt buyt buyt
773 speche speche speceh speceh
776 not not no no
777 yn the gate yn the gate yn gate yn gate
778 revera(n)s revera(n)s reverans reverans Ms. has reueras
781 sewe hys backe sewe hys backe sewe backe sewe backe
787 not not no no
794 charyté charyté charyte charyte
Total errors0105124125A missing line is worse than a mistyped letter, so this raw number may not be meaningful.

Lines Elided or Added in Halliwell/Speth

Lineelided lines
66An to worschepe hys God with alle hys myzth.
replaced withAnd to worship his God with all his might.
94-96 What that they deserven may;
And to her hure take no more,
But what that th
ey mowe serve fore;
replaced withWhat that they mowe serve fore;
And to their hire take no more,
But what that they may serve for;
Extra lines
inserted
205-207
Yn thys curyus craft, alle and som,
That longuth to a maystur mason.
Ny thys curyus craft, alle and som,
That longuth to a maystur mason.
Ny
he schal not supplante non other mon,
399And ys yn poynt to spylle that ston,
replaced withAnd is in poynt to y-schende that ston
458-459Thenne most they nede the craft forsake;
And so masonus cr
aft they schul refuse,
529Whose wol of here lyf zet mor knowe,

Accented 'é's in Halliwell/Speth

Original word Translation Line Numbers
curysté curiosity 32
degré (7) degree 38, 80, 142, 360, 567, 727, 758
semblé (12) assembly 75, 110, 111, 118, 261, 389, 408, 446, 449, 456, 471, 491 (missed 478)
syté (2) city 79, 412
onesté / honesté (4)honest 31, 141, 231, 234
ryolté / rygolté (2)royalty 407, 489
contré county 411
maynté maintain 416
worsché work 489
dygnyté dignity 490
gemetré (2) geometry 552, 573
vanyté vanity 621
charyté charity 794
(total=36)

Terminal 'e's Added to the Ms., c.15th Century?

These words had an 'e' added to the end in a very different hand than the original writer, and using a much finer-pointed pen. Generally, Halliwell accepted these in his transcription, Lorion did not. This hand may have also been responsible for some of the •s, particularly on lines with three dots instead of just two.
Original wordTranslationLine Numbers
comyng coming 11
lyuyng living 17
kyng (5) king 62, 433, 434, 486, 495
nowş neither (?)98 (this one had a '~' added rather than an 'e')
strong (3) strong 115, 209, 547
a mong (7) among 116, 202, 308, 474, 569, 716, 765
pong pound 210
practesyng practising 229
crauyng craving 359
by ƒechyng beseeching 495
werk work 539
angel angel 549
Rethorık rhetoric 569
song song 570
noşıng (2) nothing 589, 717
comandement commandments611
şıng thing 657
ƒakerıng sacrament 658
allıng entirely 698
clawıng clawing 710
trıppıng tripping(?)710
ƒpıttıng spitting 711
ƒnıftıng sniffling 711
connıng cunning 718
ƒmogıng smudging 744
drınkıng drinking 753
carpıng talking 754
ragıng ragging(?) 768
(total=41)

Errors with Baxter Translation

Key:Lines ending with archaic wordsProbably correctAcceptable alternativeTypographical errorWord or line missingExtra word or line added
Line # Group A Group B Group C M.P.S. Group D Group E Group F comments________
2 book books book book book book book [*]
8 children's sake, children's sake, children's sake, children's sake, children's sake, children s sake children's sake,
10 disease disease disease dis-ease dis-ease disease disease [*] + [*]
12-3 (elided) (elided) (elided) (see below)
12 ending ending endings ending
13 them them them them them them then
15 Lord's Lord's Lord's Lord's Lord's Lords Lord's
23 lord's lord's lord's lord's lord's lords' lords'
26 lord's lord's lord's lord's lord's lord's lords'
31 He He He He that He He that He that
35 was was was was called was was called was called
36 it it it it it it is
37 clerk clerk clerk clerk more clerk clerk more clerk more
43 Futhermore Furthermore Futhermore Furthermore Furthermore Futhermore Furthermore [*]
45 worshipped worshiped worshipped worshipped worshipped worshipped worshipped Alt. spelling[*]
47 But But But But But glut But
51 cuthe cuthe cuthe cuthne
52 Because Because Because Because Because Because because
54 Began Began Began Began Began began Began
59 years years years years years vears years
62 Athelstane'sAthelstan's Athelstane'sAthelstane'sAthelstane'sAthelstane'sAthelstane's[*]
64 honour honour honour honour honour honor honour Alt. spelling[*]
67 this this this this this this his
68 it it it it it it in [*]
72 straghfte, (straight)straghfte, (straight)straghfte, Straight)straghtfte, (straight)
75 then could then could then could then he couldthen he couldthen he couldthen he could
81 There There There These There These These
86 fifteen fifteen fifteen fifteen fifteen fifteen Fifteen
91 And And And And And find And
92 woste woste woste wost
93 fay fay fad fay
101 And And And And And find And
110 holde holde holde hold
112 skwasacyon skwasacyon skwsacyon skwsacyon
115 him him him him him him im [*]
120 takes takes takes takes takes takes take
120 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
124 no no no not not not not
125 profit, nor profit, nor profit, nor profit, nor profit, nor profit, nor profit not [*]
128 besee be see besee besee besee be see besee [*]
129 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
130 for no for no for no for no for no for no for
131 he he he he he he his
132 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
133 y-take ty-take y-take y-take
134 disease disease disease dis-ease dis-ease disease dis-ease [*] + [*]
135 case case case case case ease case
135 befall befall befall befall befal befal befal
138 y-fere y-fere y-fere y'fere
140 disease disease disease dis-eases dis-eases dis-eases dis-eases [*] + [*]
144 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
148 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
150 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
151 is mean is mean is mean is to mean is to mean is to mean is to mean
152 have all hishave all hishave all hishave his have all hishave his have his
163 take the take the take the take of the take the take the take of the
163 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
170 Judgeth Judgeth Judgeth Judgeth Judgeth Judgeth udgeth [*]
170 his prenticehis prenticehis prenticehis 'prenticehis prenticehis prenticehis 'prentice[*]
173 The The The The The The he [*]
173 master master master master master masters master
175 term term term term term tertm term
181 harbour harbour harbour harbour harbour harbour barbour [*]
188 And And And And And And and [*]
191 rechelasceperechalasceperechelasceperechelascepe
199 be be be be be be he
201 for for for for for fear for
207 shall he shall he shall he he shall notshall he he shall nothe shall not
210 pounds, (ponge)pounds. ponge, (pounds)pounds, (ponge)[*]
216 in in in it in in it
218 save save save save save save save'
219 case case case case case ease case
220 shall shall shall shall shall shall shall be
228 mason mason mason mason Mason mason mason [*]
229 if be if be if be if it be if be if it be if it be
229 practising practicing practising practising practising practising practising Alt. spelling[*]
236 wit God wit God wit God wit that Godwit God wit that Godwit that God
240 if that the if that the if that the if that the if that the if that the if the
240 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
241-2 (elided) (elided) (mixed) (see below)
241-2 tell...reachteach...tellteach...tellteach...tellteach...tell
242 points points points points ponts
247 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
248 diver diver diver divers diver divers divers
263 will will will will will win will
264 well well well well well wed well
266 Whersoever Wheresoever Whersoever Wheresoever Wheresoever Whersoever Wheresoever
268 will will will will will win will
269 as I you as I you as I you as I you as I you as I you as you
276 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
278 fellows fellows fellows fellows fellows fellows fellow
291 shall no shall no shall no shall not shall not shall not shall not
292 his master his master his master his master his master his master hi smaster [*]
293 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
295 point point point point point point
303 no no not not not not not
305 is is is is is is if
306 even low even low even low even to low even to low even to low even to low
307 befall befall befall befall befall befall befal
308 Among Among Among Among Among Among Amont
313 loveday love day loveday loveday loveday loveday loveday
314-5 (elided) (elided) (mixed) (see below)
314 agone agone gone gone gone
315 Till that the work-dayUpon the holy-dayUpon the holy-dayUpon the holy-dayUpon the holy-day
316 loveday love day loveday loveday loveday loveday loveday
317 (elided) (elided) (see below)
317 it would it would it would ll would it would
317 on a work daythe work-daythe work-daythe work-daythe work-day
325 fellows' fellows' fellows' fellow's fellows' fellow's fellows' [*]
326 despise despise despise despise despise despise dispise
327 thy thy thy thy thy thy they
327 fellows' fellows' fellows' fellow's fellows' fellow's fellows' [*]
330 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice 'prentice Prentice 'prentice
332 ben ben been ben
338 thous thou thous thou thou thous thou
345 chamber y-ferechamber y-ferechambery-ferechamber y-fere
363 Therof Thereof Therof Thereof Thereof Therof Thereof
369 (elided) (see below)
389 you him you him you him you shall himyou shall himyou shall himyou shall him
395 discretion discretion discretion discretion discretion discrction discretion
397 (know) (know, (know) (I know) [*]
403 (elided)
404 lende lende lender lende
415 thy thy thy they they they they
423 succour succor succour succour succour suecour succour Alt. spelling[*]
431 be steadfast bebe steadfast bebe steadfast bebe steadfastbe steadfastbe steadfastbe steadfast
431 true also true also true also true also also true true also true also
431-2 To To To To To To T/o [*]
433 his his his his his his hes
444 any any any any any ante any
444 points points points points points points parts
446+ Fifteen Fifteen Fifteen Fifteenth Fifteen Fifteenth Fifteenth [*]
447 point point point point point point pint [*]
447 is full goodis full goodis full goodis of full goodis of full goodis of fullis of full good
449 laid laid laid laid laid raid laid
450 masters masters masters masters masters mvsters masters
456 (line duplicated)
457 guilt's guilt's guilt's guilts guilt's guils guilts
459 no no no so no no so
463 they they they they they thev they
463 no no no not not not not
471 hold hold hold held hold held held [*]
475 Each Each Each Each Each Bach Each
476 weresoever wheresoever weresoever wheresoever weresoever wheresoever weresoever
481 the he the he the he that be that he that he that he [*]
484 craft's craft's craft's craft's craft's eraft's craft's
486 by by by by by bv by
486 Althelstane Althelstan Althelstane Althelstane Athelstane Athelstane Althelstane [*]
490 by by by by by bv by
493 his grace his grace his grace his high gracehis high gracehis high gracehis grace
494 To To To To To To o [*]
495 Athelstane Athelstan Athelstane Athelstane Athelstane Athelstane Athelstane [*]
496+ Ars quatuor ARS Quatuor [*] + [**]
496+ four crownedFour-Crownedfour crownedfour crownedfour crownedfour crownedFour CrownedNo hyphen![*] + [*]
497 almight, (almighty)almight, (almighty)almight, (almighty) almighty,
508 worshipped worshiped worshipped worshipped worshipped worshiped worshipped Alt. spelling[*]
520 were were were were were were was
526 Christ's Christ's Christ's Christ's Christ's Crist's Christ's
529 (elided) (elided) (elided) (elided) (see below)
529 Whose Whose Whose [*]
531 In the In the In the In the In the In the In
531 sanctorum sanctorum sanetorum sanctorum
532 coronatorum coronatorum coronàtorum coronatorum [*]
532 four-crownedfour-crownedfour-crownedfour crowned four crownedfour-crownedNo hyphen!
534 Hallow-e'en Hallow-e'en Hallow-e'en Hallow-e'en theHallow-e'en theHallow-eten the Hallow-e'en
548 All All All All All All all [*]
550 reche tell reche reche [*]
557 y-wysse I know y-wisse y-wisse
558 I have I I have I I have I have I I have I have I I have I
574 y-wis I know y-wis I know [*]
581 pray pray pray pray pray prav pray
582 you you you you you vou you
585 therto thereto therto there, to thereto therto therto [**]
587 ous ous out ous
592 sin sin sin sin sin sln sin
597 thy thy thy thy thy they thy
599 -600 come ...nome (take)come ...nome (take)come ...nome (take)nome (come) ...take
605 church church church church church ehureh church
608 knen knen knew knees
609 worche worche worche work
613 steven steven steven voice
621 And And And And And find And
635 knees knees knees thy knees knees thy knees knees
642 soft soft soft soft soft solf soft
642 bere noise bere bere
647 grant grant grant grant grant grant grand
652 (lost) (lost) (dot) (lost)
656-7 me." me." me." me." me." me." me./" [*]
659 not not not naught not naught not
669 Meet Meet Meet Meat Meet Meet Meet
678 sen sen sen see
683 this this this this this thls this
688 worche worche worche work
689 knylle knylle knylle toll
691 thy thy thy thee they thy thy [*]
721 therefor therefor therefor therefore therefore therefor therefor
745 snite smite smite snite
747 Too Too Too Too Too Tco Too
749 water water water water water vaster water
750 Then Then Then Then Then when Then
752 begins begins begins beginnest beginnest beginnest begins
755 anaon anaon anaon anon anon anon anaon
764 "had-y-wiste." ("had I known")"had I known""had-y-wiste." ("had known")"had-y-wiste. (had I known)[*]
765 (elided) (elided) (elided) (see below)
765 In the chamberIn chamber,In chamber,In chamber,
777 In In In In In In n [*]
778 reverance reverance reverance reverence reverence reverence reverance Alt. spelling[*] + [*]
779 with with with with with v.ith with
781 his back, his back, his back, his back, his back, his his back,
790 wit wit wit wit wit w it wit
791 Well Well Well Well Well Bell Well
794 (elided) (see below)
Total errors6156540378782A missing line is worse than a mistyped letter, so this raw number may not be meaningful. Does not include green or light blue.